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Improvement of wear behaviour of titanium by boriding

G. Kara, G. Purcek, H. Yanar, Improvement of wear behaviour of titanium by boriding, Industrial Lubrication and Tribology,  69(1) (2017) 65–70.

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to achieve a hard and protective borided layer on commercially pure Ti (grade-2) by applying boriding, and to investigate the changes in its microstructure, hardness, friction and wear behaviors.
Design/methodology/approach Pack boriding technique was used to form a hard boron diffusion layer on titanium substrate. A powder mixture of amorphous boron and anhydrous borax was used as a solid-state boriding media, and then the boriding was carried out under inert atmosphere.
Findings A thick dual boride layer consisting of a monolithic titanium diboride (TiB2) on the top and titanium monoboride (TiB) whiskers beneath that layer formed at relatively low diffusion temperature under pressured inert argon atmosphere in a boriding media containing boron source and activator. With boriding at specified conditions, very hard (4100 Hv0.01) and thick monolithic TiB2 layer formed on the top-most layer which is required for improved tribological applications. Hardness decreased gradually through the TiB whisker layer and finally reached to the hardness of base material.
Originality/value This paper investigates the effects of components of boriding mixture and conditions of thermal treatment on the formation of borided layer and its properties. In previous studies, boriding mixtures containing a boron source, an activator and a filler material was generally used at high temperatures around or above 1,050°C to achieve a thick monolithic layer on the top of the surface of titanium. In the present study, no filler material was used to accelerate the boron diffusion because filler materials may inhibit the diffusion of boron atom through the surface of substrate of titanium. Also, diffusion treatment was carried out under pressurized argon atmosphere at relatively low diffusion temperature to achieve boride layer with the improved hardness and durability.
Keywords:Titanium, Boriding, Tribology, Friction and wear

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